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博士生非学术素养受重视

欧洲大学协会日前发布了一项调查报告《当今欧洲的博士生教育:方法和制度结构》。该调查涵盖32个欧洲国家的311所博士生培养机构,涵盖了欧洲大部分的高等教育机构。该报告显示,为了应对社会转型,欧洲高等教育机构的博士生培养在注重学术研究的同时,也不断鼓励博士生的技能转化和迁移。

教育改革:关注博士生未来的非学术职业路径

该报告指出,博士生教育改革是在高等教育剧烈转型的背景下发生的。这一改革既带来了越来越高的期望,又带来了一系列新的挑战。当下,随着知识社会的不断演进,博士毕业生的职业机会已经发生改变。除了为学术职业做准备外,毕业生日益进入非学术的职业路径,以满足企业对高素质员工的需求。对于博士生而言,这意味着除了发展研究技能外,还需要适当地发展横向(也称为“通用”)技能和胜任力。同样,博士生培养机构对此变化需要作出回应。

此外,鉴于博士生教育的日益复杂性,培养机构需要承担额外的责任。其目标是,在实现机构目标的同时,要确保这些处于早期职业生涯的研究者,其博士生阶段就应成为一生中富有生产力的阶段。培养机构新的责任还包括制定新的程序以避免和解决参与者之间可能的冲突,以及确保整个博士生教育阶段的透明性和公开性。

调查发现:近半机构重视博士生的知识增值能力

此次调查内容包括欧洲博士生教育的组织结构、培养与活动、职业发展、资助、流动、完成毕业论文所花时间、指导、申请与入学、毕业率等。

就组织结构而言,超过六成的欧洲大学都有专门的机构负责博士生教育,具体内容包括开发课程、确保质量、制定规章制度等。但是,跨校之间管理博士生教育的机构很少,只占13%。此外,博士生教育主要在学系或学院层面开展,按照主题或社会挑战(例如水管理、能源、移民)而开展博士生教育的仍是少数,只占14%。

就培养与活动而言,在博士生教育的关键方面,如必修课程、培养活动的评估、课程内容、学分等,欧洲大部分高校都制定了规章制度。在博士生培养方面,大部分高校关注的核心仍然是科研能力的培养,包括先进的研究方法、新技术、基金申请写作、论文发表等。但是,博士生非学术技能的培养,也日益受到高校的重视。例如,47%的高校重视博士生的知识增值能力,如知识产权、创业精神、产品开发;37%的高校重视博士生的管理与领导胜任力,如团队精神、冲突管理;此外,45%的高校重视博士生的教学胜任力。

就职业发展而言,78%的受调查大学表示,博士生教育“总是”或“在很大程度上”为未来一代的学者做准备。不过,考虑到博士生招生数量的增加,学术以外的职业道路也被考虑其中。53%的大学强调了培养高技能知识型员工的重要性,52%的大学为学术以外的研究岗位做准备。

就财政资助而言,公共资源是欧洲大学最主要的资金来源。48%的大学表示,国家公共资源“总是”或“在很大程度上”为博士候选人提供财政支持;43%的大学表示,提供大学雇佣、大学补助和奖学金等。然而,在11%的受调查大学中,有相当多的博士生表示没有得到任何经济支持。

就流动而言,欧洲大学的大多数博士生都在同一个国家,甚至经常在同一所大学完成高等教育并获得研究学位。53%的博士生继续在他们最初获得资格学位的院校进行研究。27%的博士生转移到同一个国家的另一所机构,20%的博士生开始在另一个国家的机构进行研究,这使得欧洲大学的国际化程度较高。

就毕业论文完成所花时间而言,在4年内完成的占51%,4—5年完成的占37%,5年以上完成的占12%。与10年前相比,43%的高校认为平均完成博士论文的时间有所降低,42%的高校认为持平,15%认为有增加。

就博士生指导而言,欧洲大部分大学在导师任命(89%)、博士候选人正式报告(86%)、导师对博士候选人的反馈(73%)、博士候选人与导师或机构的书面协议(64%)、导师与博士候选人冲突(59%)、与导师最少会面次数(52%)等方面都制定了规章制度。但是,针对导师强制性培训出台制度的高校较少,仅有17%。

就博士生的申请和录取而言,73%的高校要求面试,64%的高校要求提交研究计划,52%的高校要求展示研究想法、39%的高校要求提交推荐信,27%的高校要求参加入学考试。

就决策过程而言,欧洲大学博士生教育的决策参与程序主导方式是自下而上的。大学的亚单元(院系)几乎参与到决策程序的各个方面。例如,在遴选程序(如提交研究报告、面试)上,大学亚单元的参与占84.1%;在候选人的挑选上,这一比例为91.7%;在导师规则制定上,这一比例为77.9%;在博士生培养必修课程上,这一比例为86.2%。当然,导师和学校层面在决策程序上也有一定的发言权,但不占支配地位。相对而言,国家层面的决策参与就更小了。

就毕业率而言,66%的高校表示其博士生能在6年内毕业;与10年前相比,16%的高校认为这一数字有所降低,49%的高校认为持平,35%的高校认为增加。

就质量保障而言,88%的大学在其博士生项目建立了内部质量保障系统,61%的大学还有外部评估机构。而衡量博士生教育质量的指标包括学术发表(76%)、博士候选人毕业率(72%)、员工质量(66%)、博士候选人满意度(54%)、国际化水平(53%)等。

发展趋势:学术伦理和群体多样化将是战略重点

该调查报告指出,博士生教育的经费资助、学术伦理以及博士候选人群体的多样化,将是欧洲各大学优先考虑的战略重点。尤其值得一提的是,研究伦理和诚信第一次出现在欧洲大学协会发行的有关博士生教育的出版物上,这表明当下欧洲大学的研究伦理与诚信问题变得更加重要。此外,博士生的职业发展、性别平等、开放获取或开放科学、博士生的健康或福利等也是欧洲大学未来会考虑的战略重点。而在博士生教育中的校企合作、社会参与方面,尽管欧洲各大学都认为重要,但并不是最优先的关注方向。

(作者单位:金华教育学院)

《中国教育报》2020年02月28日第6版

https://www.jiepaik.cn/learning/xiaoyuan/24281.html

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